Cool Links #34: It’s Hotting Up Edition

It seems each week brings a two-three degree rise in the temps here in Houston. Maybe that’s a good thing, they say abnormally cool summers bring hurricanes – Alicia, Allison, Katrina/Rita and Ike all came during abnormally cool summers. So, I will post some “Hot Links” today.

1)  The Kennedy Center for Performing Arts has an exceptional lesson plan (in pdf form) to accompany either the play or film Frost/Nixon that I featured last time on my blog.

2) Houston Chronicle Techblogger Dwight Silverman tells us how to give an old computer new life by donating it to Goodwill.  Houston has a Goodwill Store just for computers.  Many can be had for a song and a good number will run Windows XP or even Mac OS X (10.4 or 10.5).   They also have keyboards, mice, monitors and networking hubs.  It is all used, but most come with a 7-day or 30-day money back guarantee.

3) Adam Westbrook has two informative posts on his site for broadcasters:  Three Ways To Instantly Improve Your Writing and Five Quicker Ways To Improve Your Writing.

4) Scott Bourne’s new blog Photofocus has two wonderful posts on how to use a tripod (part 1, part 2).  Best bit:

It occurred to me that no one had ever actually asked me that question before. I also realized that no one had ever actually “taught” me how to use a tripod. I developed tripod technique based on trial and error.

5) The Evolving Newsroom blog tells us that we should not confuse the future of journalism with the future of newspapers.  I say well said, journalism is multi-platform, multiple technique now.  We have to let go of the old model and embrace the new one or be crushed by the death of the old, especially journalism educators.

6) If you use Final Cut editing software, then you will love this plug in.  Free, very cool, right justified “lower third” titles all with a quick little plug-in.

7) If you are planning your 2010 yearbook, newspaper, broadcast or web theme – then you might want to explore how to Create Consistently Colorful User Experiences.  The post has a great list of resources used at the end of the post too.

8 ) MacLife magazine has a list of 10 Things Every Final Cut User Should Know.  Best takeaway – where to find the audio overlay toggle.

9) Next year, I’d definitely like to add Javascripting to my Web Design curriculum.  This will give me a complete six-weeks for all six grading periods.  The W3Schools have a solid beginners course on Javascripting to go with their one on HTML and CSS.

10) The Black Star Rising blog has superb advice for any photog, but especially for photojournalists – carry a point and shoot with you at all times.  That way you never miss a shot because you didn’t have a camera with you.

11) PBS has put some of their best content online as full streaming video – shows like Frontline, News Hour, Nova and more.

12) The copyblogger has a fantastic post about headlines that get results including the 50/50 rule and the 80/20 rule.

13) The graphicdesignr site has a marvelous post titled Multimedia toolkit: 55 sites you should know about.

14) Go check out Wicked Decent Learning Podcast this week because they are accepting no substitutes as they discuss subs.  And I get a great shout out from them at the very beginning.  You can also subscribe to them at iTunes or listen via their blog.  Please leave them a comment either on their blog on the iTunes page.

15)  I just added the JEA Digital Media blog to my google reader.  It has lots of incredible examples of digital media and some first class how to’s.

16) The always topical 10,000 words blog has a top notch post about Why journalists should learn code (and why some shouldn’t bother).  I myself started in the WYSIWYG world of online design.  But it didn’t take long for one of my web pages to suck.  It just wouldn’t do what I told the software to do.  And no amount of tweaking could fix it.  I still design in a visual graphic editor.  I am a visual person, I started my career in TV and before that loved PageMaker as a designer and editor on my college paper.  But now, when a web page becomes balky, I don’t hesitate to flip over to the HTML or CSS to try to fix it using “brute force.”  In other words making changes to the code to make the problem go away.  Sometimes that doesn’t work either, but I find that the more I know about HTML, the easier it is to work on the web.

17) I admit that I’m a harsh critic of the Houston Chronicle, but I want to be one of the first to congratulate them on winning a Pulitzer Prize for their coverage of Hurricane Ike.  After the power came back on at my house, I flipped on the TV and the computer.  The Chronicle had so much better coverage than any other source.  They really deserve this award for performing under very difficult conditions.  Much of the fourth largest city in America was without power for most of a week, many of the hardest hit areas were without power for 3-4 weeks. Through it all, they kept reporting the news.  Now, that’s journalism.

18 ) I know I’ve blogged about it before, but The Neiman Journalism Lab has a heart breaking post about reporting on your publication’s own death.  Great videos from the Seattle P-I and the Rocky Mountain News.

19)  I know I have this argument with my video students at least once a year – don’t use music as a crutch in a video.  The News Videographer blog touches on this subject and its greater importance in broadcast journalism.

20) Not sure how I came across this final link today, but there is a Girl Group (or at least the lead singer is a girl) called Camera Obscura and their recent release is titled My Maudlin Career.  Sounds so like journalism right now if you are a doom and gloomer.  I’m not, I think the practice of journalism is only getting better.

Have a great week and think of us as we start our mandated state testing this week.  Happy-Happy-Joy-Joy.

Cool Movie About Tricky Dick



Last night I watched the DVD of the movie Frost/Nixon.  The movie is slow paced, very similar to All The President’s Men in that aspect.  The acting is really good, with veteran Frank Langella playing Nixon.

I honestly don’t remember these interviews, but of course I was only 10 years old in 1977.  Few of our students today, unfortunately really even know much about Richard Nixon, Watergate or Vietnam.  Too many times the history curriculum does not give a lot of time for more recent events.

This movie would make a good companion piece for All The President’s Men.  But what I found striking about the entire movie is that David Frost was NOT a journalist.  When I first heard about this movie, I mistakenly thought that he was a British journalist.  But he was a tallk show host.

This blows out of the water all of the arguments that all great reporting and interviewing MUST be done by trained, schooled, approved, stamped journalists.  David Frost was nothing of the sort, either before or after the Nixon interviews.  But during the interviews, he WAS a top notch journalist.

Yes, he went to Cambridge and was well educated, but so are numerous bloggers today.  I think having a solid general liberal arts education and an inquisitive mind are much more important to being a good journalist than any specific training in journalism.

The techniques of journalism can be learned by nearly anyone who is curious enough to want to know how to do it.  Many can be taught in a day or even a matter of hours.  Then it really comes down to practice, improvement, refinement and renewal.  This can be done on a blog, podcast or in nearly any medium.

Frost was a quick study and he was also willing to show his subject a little human dignity (at least in this cinematic portrayal).  This was one of the ways, plus a little check book journalism, that he won over Nixon and earned his approval for the interview.

I think that this sort of journalism will produce results again in the future. I am not saying that there is no value to journalistic training at either the high school or college level.  What I am saying is that journalism is better regarded as practice than profession, and that those who deride part-time or amature journalists do so at their own peril.  The big three networks learned this lesson in the ’70s and the big newspaper companies are relearning this lesson today.  Anyone can be a journalist if they want to be.  And today it doesn’t take huge sums of cash.  Frost could produce the Frost/Nixon interviews today for the price of a laptop, editing softare, microphones and a light kit.  The entire thing could be done online for less than $10,000.  The only real expense would still be paying Nixon’s fee.

It may have been the biggest example of checkbook journalism ever, but the success is undeniable.  He was able to get the most notorious politician of the American 20th Century to admit to wrong doing in public and on tape.  That is powerful journalism and worth a watch.

Cool Links #33: The Yearbooks Are Coming, The Yearbooks Are Coming

We got our boxes of yearbook this last week, but they are still sitting in my TV studio unopened, except one box.  The will remain there until after our state testing when we hand them out on May 4. So, until then I will have to be content with finding more cool links for all of you.  Here’s a sample:

1) Photographer Samuel Cockadey posted a dynamite slideshow that borders on video.  He took the shots in Tokyo with a Nikon DSLR and the results are awe inspiring.

2) Canadian J-School Prof. Mark Hamilton writes that in the web era we seriously need to revisit the inverted pyramid with our students.  I agree.  Web news is all about getting the most information in the quickest format.  that is the definition of the inverted pyramid. Best quote:

The inverted pyramid, it turns out, isn’t the devil’s spawn after all. It’s just another tool for storytelling and one that I think editors and reporters may need to spend a little more time exploring.

3) Have you ever tried to get a student to understand why you can’t print a 1-inch tall 72 dpi web photo in the yearbook at 300 dpi and 6-inches (36 picas) tall?  Well the digtial Photography School has a wonderful visualization of one photo at various dpi resolutions.  It makes it very easy to understand.

4) Near the end of each school year, I always do a unit on film production in my video technology class.  One of the many things we cover are who are the best boys, gaffers, foley artists and grips?  The Mental Floss blog has a well put together list of film credits that you don’t know what they do.

5) The digital Photography School is continuing with their tremendous series Photography 101 – in part 7, they discuss using ISO.  It has great examples of grain/noise and why it happens when you jack up the ISO.

6) How much Photoshop is too much in news photography?  I’ve heard the range of answers across the board from none to some to only what could be done in a wet darkroom, etc.  This article from Denmark shows three great examples of photos where the photographer altered only the levels and colors, but changed the content of the photos.  Is this ethical?  Great discussion starter.

Really short list this week, but not all weeks are created equal.

Yearbook Day Paradoxes

After reading Graphic Design Paradoxes, I was inspired to write a post about yearbook day paradoxes.   Yearbook Day – the day we all look forward to and dread with equal measure brings with it many paradoxes:

1) There’s no such thing as a bad yearbook, just bad execution – Sometimes the yearbook staff tries too hard to create a book that is too ambitious, other times the theme that seemed so great in September, just doesn’t work in May.  It takes such an effort from each staff member over 7-8 months to pull off a great yearbook.  Sometimes it just doesn’t work out.

2) The best way to create a great yearbook is to buy a yearbook – Staff members who have bought a book are much more likely to work hard to create a good book.  Encourage every staff member to buy a book as early as possible.

3)  If we want to educate our students about good yearbooks, we must first educate ourselves about our student body –  What do the students who are NOT in yearbook really want in the yearbook?  Once you know that – then you can really create a great yearbook.  It’s not about winning awards, although those will probably come too.  It’s about sales.

4) If we want to sell more yearbooks, we have to concentrate on making a great yearbook – not on selling yearbooks.  A really good yearbook, like any good product sells itself.  Especially in this age of viral marketing, let the book speak for itself.  If it doesn’t sell well, then you need to rethink what you are doing.

5) Yearbooks are about more than just pictures, you need to write well too.  Kids hate the words in yearbooks, not because they are words, but because they are boring.  Write about things they care about and they will read it.

6)  Yearbooks don’t always sell because of a good cover, but they will almost definitely fail because of a bad cover.  Like it or not, kids judge the book by its cover.  Every book’s cover is about tradition and cool factor.  As a 40+ yearbook teacher, I know how hard I have to work to keep up with what’s cool with the kids.  You better study and just because you don’t like it, doesn’t mean the kids won’t love it.

7) The yearbook staff knows best.  This is a sure path to failure.  Don’t include the students in the process and you will pay the price in sales.  It is not the yearbook staff’s book.  The book belongs to the students.

8 ) Other schools have it easy because their parents just buy books without thinking.  Even if that is true, you work at your school.  This is your book.  Take some pride in it.  Make the book you have the best it can be regardless of the level of technology you have, support you get from the administration, etc.

9) The best way to be a yearbook editor or adviser is to tell everyone what to do and keep on their butts ’til they do it.  This just breeds resentment and distrust.  Try to include every staff member in as much as possible.  Give them a chance to give their input as often as possible.  The more they are invested in the book, the more they will work to make it a success.

10) Believe in yourself, set standards and try to live up to them.  People have no respect for those of us who don’t live up to our ideals.  Don’t be lazy when it comes to checking names, spelling, grammar, facts, etc. Send your book to be rated.  Look for the good and try not to take the bad too personally.

Become A Yes Man (or Woman)

I just watched the hilarious Jim Carey comedy “Yes Man” the other day and I enjoyed both the humor and its message.  The moral of the story is that until you open yourself up to new experiences and help other people, you will never be happy. I think this is true both personally and professionally.

I know that as a professional teacher, I have found many of my most fulfilling experiences in doing things that are not in my job description.  Many times it has come from things that others asked me to do, or help them with.  Sometimes I did it with both trepidation and even outright loathing of the task. But often, when I saw how great the need was, I was caught like a trout on a hook.

But like the Yes Man of the movie, there are times when you have to learn to say no.  Many people in my school who I have helped, know not to ask me for stuff when the yearbook deadline nears.  It just isn’t sane or possible for me to help anyone as that last deadline rears its ugly head.  It is too much work all at once.  Nothing else can even enter my mind.

But afterwards, there is nothing but time to help others.  I have worked with our athletic director to take team photos for their calendar.  My students help to produce the dance department’s spring show.  I’m glad to help make posters and fliers or web banners.  We make videos for various clubs and organizations.  As long as we have a reasonable amount of time and are given a chance to showcase my student’s abilities, I don’t mind helping out.

In the end, it has earned my students a lot of opportunities to work on projects that are more PR based or even general entertainment.  It has also earned us a lot of free food, thank you cards and notes and the good will of more than one teacher who previously wouldn’t give my kids an interview. Sometimes it is these perks that draw students into the program too.  They see the cameras at a public performance and start thinking, “I want to do that.”

Sometimes journalism teachers need to remember that they are part of another community – education.  We are teachers, not just journalists.  We need to see the possibilities for what they are, not what we wish they were.  Be open to helping others, especially when there is no compelling reason not to.  Sometimes be open to helping others when it is not always the best time.  Don’t let it stop you from doing your primary job, but sometimes saying yes is exactly the right thing to do.  You never know when it will open a door.

Cool Links #32: Easter Egg Edition

I’ve been feeling a lot better, both mentally, physically and spiritually.  So, I thought I’d hand out a special Easter edition of Cool Stuff!  Enjoy!

1)  It seems our cousins across the pond didn’t read their Orwell.  Here’s a great Flickr image of a photoshopped version of a real poster seen in the wild in Britain. Check out the real poster here on their Flickr feed.

Didnt Read Their Orwell

Didn't Read Their Orwell

2)  Here’s a great nugget from NASA, the orginal Earthrise photo from the Apollo 8 Mission. Beautiful even in black and white.



3)  Another rock solid interactive map from the NY Times, immigration and jobs in the US, by country of origin and job type.  Very cool and easy to understand. The NY Times does graphics better than anyone on the internet right now.

4) All teachers, especially high school ones, have seen these moves in their classes as students try to check their text messages.  Short and worth the watch TED talk about the anti-social nature of cell phones.

5) Web design teachers and yearbook teachers can find a lot of use in this post about the basic online column layouts and their most used percentages.

6) Here’s another YB/Web two-fer, 8 Simple Ways to Improve Typography.  I know that this is one of the easiest ways to improve your publication or web site’s look is back to basics.  Look at your text.  Make it readable and tweak it until it looks great.  Then lock it in for at least a year.

7) Yearbook teachers, if you’re like me, then this year’s book is done.  Next year’s book is already started and you are running out of things to do.   Here’s 25 FUN Things You can do with photos! Fun!

8 ) Not sure what LOL BRB L8R or noob mean?  Here’s a Text Message translator so you can either figure out what they are texting about you, or so you can just figure out what your son/daughter/editor sent you in that last text message said!

9) If you teach photography, you probably get some smart-alec kid each semester who wants you debunk some “ghost photo” that he/she saw on TV or the web.  This site has scientific explanations for how several ghost photos may have happened.

10) Tired of the same old look, spruce up your designs with 25 Free modern looking fonts. FREE!

Have fun egg hunting.  Happy Easter.

Cool Links #31: Mini-Break for Easter Edition

Thank goodness for Easter Break.  Between pre-test madness and my dental problems, I’m frazzled.  Three day weekend plus a teacher work day after is just what the doctor ordered – REST.  But before I chill out, there are cool links to be dished up for all.  Enjoy.

1) Darren Durlach of WBFF-TV in Baltimore, award winning photo says we really need good stand-ups in our broadcast stories.  (Thanks Advancing the Story)

2) This is a shamless plug for Scott Bourne of This Week in Photography and Mac Break Weekly and many other fine media outlets.  He is giving away a Drobo.  If you don’t know, the Drobo is the best-awesomest backup system invented thus far.  It is a little pricey for most school budgets (that’s why I’m hoping to win one).  But if you have a blog, go check out his contest page and enter to win.  All you have to do is link to and   Plus send him a tweet via Twitter at Get drobotized.

3) This little lesson is going into my web design bag of tricks.  I am still new to CSS and DIV tags have been a hard sell for me.  I love my HTML tables no matter how messy the code gets.  My motto is – If it works, don’t fix it.  But this informative article about Table Layout vs. Div Layout in Smashing Magazine has sold me.  I’m going to read it again and again until I get it.  But it is well written and easy to understand. I am determined to get out of table hell.

4) I hope that Advancing the Story does not think I’m link scraping from them, just they’ve had some great resources recently, like this nugget on VJs or Solo Mojos or One-man-bands. Too bad I can’t figure out how to embed Vimeo videos in WordPress.

5) I am so using this post in my Yearbook class next week to kick start a discussion on selling books next year.  Three secrets of persuasion that every kid knows.   Ask for it, give a reason for it and set a deadline.  Simple.

6)  Creating Lifelong Learners blog has an awesome example of the Rule of Thirds both for video and photo.  It is a mashup of a promo for Disney’s High School Musical 2.  EVERY shot is a perfect rule of thirds example.  Wow!

7) Apparently the Daily Bruin is all the Buzz, sorry about the bad pun.  To make ends meet, they sold out, their front page.  Innovation in College Media has they story and both the “ad front” and the actual front page images.  Check it out.  Great ethics topic for discussion.

8 ) With the end of the year in sight, yearbook day is coming.  And with yearbook day, comes the critics.  I am over 40, I have kids, teach kids and worked in the pro media – I have a tough skin.  My students, not so much.  They get hurt when other kids criticize their work.  This is a good primer for handling criticism that all media teachers should share with their students if they are going to make their work public.

9) This summer, I plan to update our yearbook website – make it more user friendly, hip and web 2.0.  But I also want it to SELL YEARBOOKS!  Smashing Magazine (really I’m not link scraping) has a post that will be useful for this and for web designers who want to sell something via their web site.

10) A couple of months ago I ran a post about image editors that can replace Photoshop if you don’t need to create CMYK TIFF images for publication.  But most were Mac-centric, has a very Windows-centric list of image editors that can help those of you on the Microsoft side of the Media house.

11) Many in the media, especially newspapers are screaming that the sky is falling in hard hitting watchdog journalism, but Bill Moyer’s Journal had an internet based journalist on his show who won an Izzy Award for going after the government for both the Iraq War and the financial crisis.

12)  We recently joined School Tube because we needed a place to put our entries for the Brainyflix contest, but there is a lot of great content and student created tutorials on School Tube, such as video shooting basics.

13) eHow and Jamal Spenser have a fun series of videos about Sportscasting that is worth a watch for broadcast students who are into reporting on sports.

14)  Common Craft has posted another video on how to use better search strategies on the Internet.  As always, easy to understand.

15) Don’t want to look like an amature when you take out the camera?  Avoid these top ten mistakes according to

Well, my pain meds are cutting out, so I will cut this edition off short.  Time to go take a nap and some medicine.  Hope my insurance calls with my referral soon.  Until then I’ll be sleepy and unfocused or in pain. But don’t let me stop you from having a great holiday.

If you have a link you want to send me send it in a Tweet on Twitter to @teach_j and put in the hashtag #jlinks.

Taking A Day – Is It Wrong?

I spent much of the day in pain today – waiting for the dentist and then waiting for my pain meds at the pharmacy.  But while I was doing all this waiting, I had several podcasts on my iPod and I was listening to them.  A topic that inadvertently came up during a discussion about Twitter was “mental health days.”

For those who may not be teachers (students, pre-service educators, parents, etc.), a “mental health day” is when a teacher takes a day off from teaching when they are not sick.

There are many schools of thought about mental health days.  First, are there educators who abuse their sick days and take off on nearly every Friday?  Sure there are a number of teachers who are counting the days until retirement and take off a large number of Fridays.

Second, are there some younger educators who have not yet figured out that they are no longer in college and find Monday mornings too hard to deal with?  Sure that exists too.

But I also believe that there are a number of teachers who genuinely need a day off now and then to recover their mental health.  I know that there are administrators who will disagree with me and say that the students are short changed every time we do take off a day.  But that is a dodge for them.  They need to hire better substitute teachers, provide them with more training and tools for discipline problems.

My state gives every teacher five days each year for personal or family illness or emergency.  We also get another five days from my district.  The unused days are also carried over each year.  I’ve been a teacher for 14 years and have a large number of days built up.

I know my district will “buy back” a number of days when if I retire.  But they will only by back district days.  If I were to change districts, I can only keep state days.  This is confusing and unfair.  It encourages me to use district days now, but state days after I pass the half-way point in my career.

It also encourages older, experienced teachers nearing retirement to use it or lose it.  Both the state and the districts should consider rewarding teachers for unused days.  They should also allow for sick-day banks.  Too many districts/states don’t allow employees to contribute days to colleagues who are sick or face long leaves due to pregnancy.  Too many young, female teachers end up working for free or reduced pay because their maternity leaves exceed the number of days they have stored.  (An average 3-month maternity leave would equal 60 days.)  Few teachers under 30 have that many days stored up.

But back to mental health days – any yearbook teacher will tell you that they need a week off after the yearbook is done.  Taking a mental health day is not out of the question.

Teachers who give it their all deserve to be able to use their personal days without being hassled by an administrator unless they are abusing those days.  And teachers with 30 years of service should be given options to cash out days instead of being forced to miss class time or lose days they earned with many years of valuable service.

Should we shun those who abuse personal days?  Yes, they reflect poorly on us all.  But don’t feel bad if you just need to take a day to recover from the stresses we all feel from time to time.  And don’t let anyone else make you feel bad either.

Cool Links #30: The Tooth Will Set You Free

Not sure what is wrong with my “tooth” really my bridge – it has been hurting all day.  Sometimes stuff gets caught under it.  Hope that’s all it is.  Until then, I’m taking my mind off it with another edition of Cool Links.

1) Visual shooters need to remember the old adage Wide, Medium, Tight.  John Gross did a great short interview about this topic.

2) TED Talks guest Jacek Utko says that design can save newspapers by making them more visually interesting.  Basically all the old rules of journalism need to be broken in order to first serve design.

3) Twip Photo has another great post on the basics of using a histogram and how it helps you to tone your photos for any purpose.

4) This graphic just plain rocks!  The periodic table of visualization is just wow!  Yearbook, web design and newspaper teachers should use this to teach their student how to make and add great graphic content to their products. In a related post, 10,000 words blog has a fun multimedia picker to help you choose the best way to tell a story.

5) This is really creative writing.  The Lost Generation is a super well-written piece that can be read forward for one meaning and backward for another one.  Very cool.  Applications for yearbook opening and closing copy could be really useful.

6) Stephen Colbert has a little fun at the expense of Newspaper Association president John Sturm.  Best moment is when Stephen races John – iPod vs. newspaper.  Guess who wins.

7) Not sure if it is capital or capitol?  This Confusing Words site will help you pick the right one.

8 ) The dPS, digital Photography School just keeps coming on with more tips.  This week it is 13 tips for improving outdoor portraits.

9) Why is J-School still popular? I think it is because kids know that multimedia skills are the future of more than just one field.

10) In 12 days my blog turns two years old.  In that time, I’ve learned a lot.  Super Punch has 8 lessons for bloggers, I have a few too.

I. Be who you are and don’t be afraid.  I was outed even after carefully trying to stay private.  It was a good thing.

II. Write about what you know.  The old adage is so true, but so is the reverse.  Write about things as you learn them.  It is refreshing to read about someone learning something for the fist time.

III.  Be social.  Join Facebook and Twitter.  Become a single brand – all linked to your blog.

IV. Ask for help and give it too.

V.  Share.  Give of your self as long as it doesn’t hurt you personally or professionally.  The more you give, the more you get.

11) NPAA Photographer of the Year talks about shooting news video.  Must watch.

12) Innovation in College Media has a thoughtful post on “will there be jobs after college” for j-students?

By nature, journos are deadline oriented people… another highly marketable skill -Holly Setter (@hsetter)

13) Time magazine has an almost gloating piece about the “death” of broadcast TV.  Once again it is all niche, TV is not dying – it is getting stronger, just via cable and smaller shows instead of bigger ones.

14) CBS Sunday Morning has a fun segment about how newspapers are returning to their roots by getting rid of all that corporate culture.   CBS had a triple play with this article about Stopping the Presses and going digital as well as a video segment too.

15) Israel Hyman of Izzyvideo has generously posted a great screencast course for using Final Cut Express 4.   And it is FREE!

16) While journalism needs to change in order to survive in the 21st Century, certain ideals need to be kept and the Save the Media blog has a great list of ethical behaviors to hang on to.

Hope you have a good week and I’ll try to as well.  Now I’ve got to make a test.